Family background, subject choice and university have a significant impact on English students' earnings five years after graduation, new data shows.
Figures compiled by the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) show economics and medicine students earn about 60% more than history and English graduates.
Those from the highest social groups have an 8% premium on earnings, while every A at A-level adds about 3%.
The data controls for socio-economic background and prior attainment.
The IFS examined the school and university exam records of graduates from England attending UK universities, alongside their tax returns.
It found that, typically, graduates of physics and maths had higher earnings than those who studied subjects such as psychology and sociology.